Iwan Der Schreckliche 2 Kommentare zu "Weltgeschichte: Das unheimliche Comeback von Iwan dem Schrecklichen"

Iwan IV. Wassiljewitsch, der Schreckliche war der erste Großfürst von Moskau, der sich selbst zum Zaren von Russland krönte. Die deutsche Übersetzung von „grosny“ ist „furchteinflößend, streng“. Die Übersetzung „schrecklich“ ist zwar gebräuchlich. Iwan der Schreckliche ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Iwan der. Iwan der Schreckliche oder Ivan der Schreckliche bezeichnet folgende Personen​: Iwan IV. (Russland) (–), russischer Zar; Iwan Martschenko. Es war ein Menetekel für die kommenden 37 schlimmsten Terrorjahre Russlands​. Der Zarewitsch Iwan Wassiljewitsch war erst drei Jahre alt, als. Im Oktober wurde in der Stadt Orjol ein Denkmal namens „Grosni“ (der Schreckliche) für Iwan IV. errichtet. Er ist einer der umstrittensten.

iwan der schreckliche

Bei der Rehabilitierung von Iwan dem Schrecklichen wie beim Denkmal für Alexander III. zeigt Putin, dass ihm an Wahrheit nicht gelegen ist. Es war ein Menetekel für die kommenden 37 schlimmsten Terrorjahre Russlands​. Der Zarewitsch Iwan Wassiljewitsch war erst drei Jahre alt, als. Im Oktober wurde in der Stadt Orjol ein Denkmal namens „Grosni“ (der Schreckliche) für Iwan IV. errichtet. Er ist einer der umstrittensten.

Januar er zwei Briefe geschrieben hatte: die erste — die höchste Kirchenhierarchie, die erklärt, dass die Verschwörung der Bojaren nicht erlauben ihm, das Land zu führen, die zweite — die Leute, dass der König nicht wütend auf die Menschen war, so dass sie eine Entscheidung.

All diese Ereignisse Iwan Grosny sehr hart war. Gardisten haben die treibende Kraft des Königs gewesen. Es ist der Armee war, der engagierten Menschen zusammengesetzt, dass der König Land und viel Handlungsfreiheit gab.

Erstellen Opritschnina immer Historiker sind viele Unterschiede. Auf der einen Seite sind sie Menschen, die Tyrannei zu verwalten waren, tötet nicht nur die Täter, sondern auch viele unschuldige Menschen.

Es war nicht die erste Welle der Verschwörungen. Der Zar hatte keinen persönlichen Hass auf die Stadt, nur weitere Ereignisse waren für ihn politisch notwendig.

Infolge der Kampagne gegen Nowgorod wurde etwa die Hälfte der Stadtbevölkerung getötet. Die Hinrichtungen wurden öffentlich und sehr grausam durchgeführt.

Das machte Russland die schwersten Repressalien den König fürchtete, die ihm Macht in ihren Händen zu halten erlaubt und Reformen zu verwalten, einen leistungsfähigen zentralisierte Staat zu schaffen.

Iwan der Schreckliche hatte viele Frauen, alle starben nicht durch ihren eigenen Tod. Iwan der Schreckliche hatte sieben nach einigen Quellen acht Frauen, unter denen der erste am längsten lebte und vom König wirklich geliebt wurde.

Weitere Ehen, so scheint es, stand entweder nicht dem Vergleich mit dem ersten im kranken Gehirn oder war das Ergebnis eines sich verschlechternden Geisteszustandes.

Sie war jung und schön, hatte aber eine sehr aggressive und grausame Laune. Vielleicht hat sie dazu beigetragen, den Charakter und die Moral des Königs weiter zu schädigen.

Die letzte Tatsache bestätigt nicht. Es wurde gesagt, dass die Königin vergiftet wurde. Allerdings haben moderne Studien des Giftes in den Überresten nicht aufgedeckt.

Vielleicht war das Gift pflanzlichen Ursprungs. Die vierte Ehe wurde durch das Gesetz der Kirche verboten, aber durch einen Sonderbeschluss durfte der König heiraten.

Eine neue Frau war Anna Koltovskaya, die ein glühender Gegner von oprichnina war. Viele Führungskräfte der Opritschnina wurden hingerichtet oder ins Exil geschickt.

Vielleicht war es eine solche Einmischung in die Angelegenheiten des Souveräns, die zum Ende der Ehe führte, die weniger als ein Jahr dauerte nach einigen Quellen, 3 Jahre.

Als sie entdeckte, dass sie keine Jungfrau war, befahl der König ihr, sie in einem Teich zu ertränken diese Ehe tritt normalerweise nicht in offiziellen Quellen auf.

Die sechste Ehe mit Anna Vasilchikova dauerte mehrere Monate, nachdem sie sich der Gunst gefallen hatte, wurde sie in ein Kloster verbannt.

Ihr Mann wurde auf Befehl von Iwan der oprichnikom gestochen, so dass es keine Hindernisse für die Ehe gäbe. Doch nachdem sie zu gut auf den schönen Mann geschaut hatte, schickte der König sie zu einem Kloster und befahl dem armen Mann, hingerichtet zu werden.

Und die letzte — die achte Ehe — mit Maria Naga Es war ihr Sohn, Zarewitsch Dmitri, der in Uglich gestorben ist.

Aber im kranken Gehirn war die Entscheidung über eine neue Ehe bereits reif für die Stärkung der Beziehungen zu den europäischen Ländern.

Meine Frau war nicht nötig und wurde in ein Kloster geschickt. Iwan der Schreckliche hat seinen Sohn getötet. Zarewitsch Iwan, wie sein Vater, hatte mehr als eine Frau und drei.

Alle seine Frauen waren seinem Vater unangenehm. Bei Evdokia Saburova heiratete der Zar seinen Sohn im Alter von 18 Jahren, nach drei Jahren wurde sie in ein Kloster geschickt, und ihre neue Braut, Praskeva Solovaya, wurde gefunden, und bald wartete das Kloster auf sie.

Die dritte Frau — Elena Sheremetyeva, hat wahrscheinlich die Zwietracht zwischen ihrem Sohn und ihrem Vater verursacht. Using ways of new Soviet state and industrial progress she changes life and labor of her village.

As was common in Diaz's Mexico, a young hacienda worker finds his betrothed imprisoned and his life threatened by his master for confronting a hacienda guest for raping the girl.

A year later the backers halted the project before filming was complete. Having revolutionized film editing through such masterworks of montage as Potemkin and Strike, Soviet director Sergei Eisenstein emigrated west in hopes of testing the capabilities of the American film industry.

An aging doorman, after being fired from his prestigious job at a luxurious Hotel is forced to face the scorn of his friends, neighbours and society.

In scenes of his coronation, his wedding to Anastasia, his campaign against the Tartars in Kazan, his illness when all think he will die, recovery, campaigns in the Baltic and Crimea, self-imposed exile in Alexandrov, and the petition of Muscovites that he return, his enemies among the boyars threaten his success.

Chief among them are his aunt, who wants to advance the fortunes of her son, a simpleton, and Kurbsky, a warrior prince who wants both power and the hand of Anastasia.

Ivan deftly plays to the people to consolidate his power. Eisenstein's 'Ivan the Terrible' once featured in an American book of the 50 worst films of all times, along with 'Attack of the Killer Tomatoes' and 'Plan 9 from Outer Space'.

But as true cinemaniacs acknowledge, 'Ivan', along with 'Ivan the Terrible Part 2', is one of the great masterpieces of the screen.

Its style is highly artificial, the acting operatic with no condescension to realism. But the viewer is swept away by the stylised pacing, the way each scene is so precisely plotted and designed -- each camera shot becomes a precious ornamented jewel.

The film is, like the earlier 'Alexander Nevsky', as much a vehicle for the great Russian composer Prokofiev as for Eisenstein -- the two attained a cinematic union of image and music which has been rarely equaled since.

The orchestral soundtrack is definitely low-fi. But the print sources must have been excellent -- the black-and-white prints are as lustrous as the finest modern movie, the images sharp and clear.

And when the film suddenly switches from black-and-white and erupts in colour, the colour is dense and brilliant, unlike the bleached and pale versions usually doing the art-cinema rounds.

How fantastic to have available such treasures on DVD, in such pristine condition! Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.

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Alternate Versions. Rate This. During the early part of his reign, Ivan the Terrible faces betrayal from the aristocracy and even his closest friends as he seeks to unite the Russian people.

Director: Sergei M. Ivan's reign was characterized by Russia's transformation from a medieval state into an empire under the Tsar, though at immense cost to its people and its broader, long-term economy.

In the young years of Ivan, there was a conquest of the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. After consolidating his power, Ivan got rid of the advisers from the "Chosen Council" and triggered the Livonian War , which ravaged Russia and resulted in the loss of Livonia and Ingria , but allowed him to establish greater autocratic control over Russia's nobility , whom he violently purged in the Oprichnina.

The later years of Ivan's reign were also marked by the Massacre of Novgorod and the burning of Moscow by Tatars.

Ivan was a patron of trade , giving a monopoly to the Muscovy Company , and the founder of Russia's first publishing house , the Moscow Print Yard.

Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, but also prone to paranoia , rages , and episodic outbreaks of mental instability that increased with age.

The English word terrible is usually used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation.

The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in "inspiring fear or terror; dangerous; powerful; formidable".

It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible , such as "defective" or "evil". Elena's mother was a Serbian princess and her father's family, the Glinski clan nobles based in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , claimed descent both from Orthodox Hungarian nobles and the Mongol ruler Mamai — Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father.

His mother Elena Glinskaya initially acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, [16] [17] in when Ivan was only eight years old.

The regency then alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, Ivan, along with his younger brother Yuri , often felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.

In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, and me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest.

What have I suffered for want of garments and food!! Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovna , a member of the Romanov family , who became the first Russian tsaritsa.

By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia: he was now the only supreme ruler of the country, and his will was not to be questioned.

The political effect was to elevate Ivan's position. He was now a "divine" leader appointed to enact God's will, as "church texts described Old Testament kings as 'Tsars' and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar.

Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of , the early part of Ivan's reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization.

Ivan revised the law code, creating the Sudebnik of , founded a standing army the streltsy , [23] established the Zemsky Sobor the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type and the council of the nobles known as the Chosen Council , and confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters Stoglavy Synod , which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the whole country.

He introduced local self-government to rural regions, mainly in the northeast of Russia, populated by the state peasantry.

By Ivan's order in the Moscow Print Yard was established and the first printing press was introduced to Russia. Several religious books in Russian were printed during the s and s.

The new technology provoked discontent among traditional scribes, leading to the Print Yard being burned in an arson attack.

Nevertheless, printing of books resumed from onwards, with Andronik Timofeevich Nevezha and his son Ivan now heading the Print Yard.

Ivan had St. Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan. There is a false legend that he was so impressed with the structure that he had the architect, Postnik Yakovlev , blinded so that he could never design anything as beautiful again.

In reality, Postnik Yakovlev went on to design more churches for Ivan and the walls of the Kazan Kremlin in the early s, as well as the chapel over St.

Basil's grave that was added to St. Basil's Cathedral in , several years after Ivan's death. Although more than one architect was associated with this name and constructions, it is believed that the principal architect is one and the same person.

Other events of this period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom , instituted during the rule of future tsar Boris Godunov in The s brought to Russia hardships that led to a dramatic change of Ivan's policies.

Russia was devastated by a combination of drought and famine, unsuccessful wars against the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , Tatar invasions and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League.

His first wife, Anastasia Romanovna , died in , and her death was suspected to be a poisoning.

This personal tragedy deeply hurt Ivan and it is thought to have affected his personality, if not his mental health. At the same time, one of Ivan's advisors, Prince Andrei Kurbsky , defected to the Lithuanians, took command of the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki.

This series of treasons made Ivan paranoically suspicious of nobility. From there he sent two letters in which he announced his abdication because of the alleged embezzlement and treason of the aristocracy and clergy.

The boyar court was unable to rule in Ivan's absence and feared the wrath of the Muscovite citizenry. A boyar envoy departed for Aleksandrova Sloboda to beg Ivan to return to the throne.

He demanded that he should be able to execute and confiscate the estates of traitors without interference from the boyar council or church.

Upon this, Ivan decreed the creation of the oprichnina. The oprichnina consisted of a separate territory within the borders of Russia, mostly in the territory of the former Novgorod Republic in the north.

Ivan held exclusive power over the oprichnina territory. The Boyar Council ruled the zemshchina 'land' , the second division of the state.

Ivan also recruited a personal guard known as the Oprichniki. Originally it was a thousand strong. One known oprichnik was the German adventurer Heinrich von Staden.

The oprichniki enjoyed social and economic privileges under the oprichnina. They owed their allegiance and status to Ivan, not to heredity or local bonds.

The first wave of persecutions targeted primarily the princely clans of Russia, notably the influential families of Suzdal.

Ivan executed, exiled or forcibly tonsured prominent members of the boyar clans on questionable accusations of conspiracy.

Among those executed were the Metropolitan Philip and the prominent warlord Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky. In Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts.

Of the 12, nobles there, became oprichniks, and the rest were expelled. Under the new political system, the Oprichniki were given large estates, but unlike the previous landlords, could not be held accountable for their actions.

These men "took virtually all the peasants possessed, forcing them to pay 'in one year as much as [they] used to pay in ten.

The price of grain increased by a factor of ten. Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the epidemic, a plague that killed 10, people in Novgorod, and —1, daily in Moscow.

During the grim conditions of the epidemic, and a famine along with the ongoing Livonian War , Ivan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect, placing the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

A Novgorod citizen Petr Volynets warned the tsar about the alleged conspiracy though modern historians believe that his report was false.

In Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city. The Oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city was never to regain its former prominence.

Casualty figures vary greatly from different sources. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60, The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs, then run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason.

He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom; the archbishop was also hunted to death.

Yet the official death toll named 1, of Novgorod's big people nobility and mentioned only about the same number of smaller people.

The Oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod. During the —72 Russo-Crimean war , oprichniks failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army.

In , Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniks. In , Ivan once again pretended to resign from his title and proclaimed Simeon Bekbulatovich , his statesman of Tatar origin, the new Tsar.

Simeon reigned as a figurehead leader for a year. According to English envoy Giles Fletcher, the Elder , under Ivan's instructions Simeon confiscated all of the lands that belonged to monasteries, while Ivan pretended to disagree with the decision.

When the throne was returned to Ivan in , he returned some of the confiscated land, keeping the rest. However, all these craftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia.

The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.

Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Company and granted the Company privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.

With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance.

During his troubled relations with the boyars, the tsar even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardized.

Elizabeth agreed on condition that he provided for himself during his stay. Ivan IV corresponded with overseas Orthodox leaders.

In response to a letter of Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria asking the Tsar for financial assistance for the Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula , which had suffered from the Turks, Ivan IV sent in a delegation to Egypt Eyalet by archdeacon Gennady, who, however, died in Constantinople before he could reach Egypt.

From then on the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov. After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders.

These reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan. A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgali , gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne.

In the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war.

The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well. In the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan.

It was used as the Russian place d'armes during the decisive campaign of The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August.

Iwan Der Schreckliche Video

Iwan der Schreckliche Iwan IV. war der erste Großfürst von Moskau, der sich zum Zar von ganz Russland krönen ließ. Das war im Jahr Das Wort Zar leitet sich von "Kaiser​" bzw. Iwan, der Schreckliche wurde am August geboren. Er war der Enkel von Iwan III., der unter dem Beinamen der Große bekannt ist. Iwan war beim Tod. Bei der Rehabilitierung von Iwan dem Schrecklichen wie beim Denkmal für Alexander III. zeigt Putin, dass ihm an Wahrheit nicht gelegen ist.

At the same time, one of Ivan's advisors, Prince Andrei Kurbsky , defected to the Lithuanians, took command of the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki.

This series of treasons made Ivan paranoically suspicious of nobility. From there he sent two letters in which he announced his abdication because of the alleged embezzlement and treason of the aristocracy and clergy.

The boyar court was unable to rule in Ivan's absence and feared the wrath of the Muscovite citizenry. A boyar envoy departed for Aleksandrova Sloboda to beg Ivan to return to the throne.

He demanded that he should be able to execute and confiscate the estates of traitors without interference from the boyar council or church.

Upon this, Ivan decreed the creation of the oprichnina. The oprichnina consisted of a separate territory within the borders of Russia, mostly in the territory of the former Novgorod Republic in the north.

Ivan held exclusive power over the oprichnina territory. The Boyar Council ruled the zemshchina 'land' , the second division of the state.

Ivan also recruited a personal guard known as the Oprichniki. Originally it was a thousand strong. One known oprichnik was the German adventurer Heinrich von Staden.

The oprichniki enjoyed social and economic privileges under the oprichnina. They owed their allegiance and status to Ivan, not to heredity or local bonds.

The first wave of persecutions targeted primarily the princely clans of Russia, notably the influential families of Suzdal.

Ivan executed, exiled or forcibly tonsured prominent members of the boyar clans on questionable accusations of conspiracy. Among those executed were the Metropolitan Philip and the prominent warlord Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky.

In Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts. Of the 12, nobles there, became oprichniks, and the rest were expelled.

Under the new political system, the Oprichniki were given large estates, but unlike the previous landlords, could not be held accountable for their actions.

These men "took virtually all the peasants possessed, forcing them to pay 'in one year as much as [they] used to pay in ten. The price of grain increased by a factor of ten.

Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the epidemic, a plague that killed 10, people in Novgorod, and —1, daily in Moscow.

During the grim conditions of the epidemic, and a famine along with the ongoing Livonian War , Ivan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect, placing the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

A Novgorod citizen Petr Volynets warned the tsar about the alleged conspiracy though modern historians believe that his report was false.

In Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city. The Oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city was never to regain its former prominence.

Casualty figures vary greatly from different sources. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60, The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs, then run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason.

He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom; the archbishop was also hunted to death.

Yet the official death toll named 1, of Novgorod's big people nobility and mentioned only about the same number of smaller people.

The Oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod. During the —72 Russo-Crimean war , oprichniks failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army.

In , Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniks. In , Ivan once again pretended to resign from his title and proclaimed Simeon Bekbulatovich , his statesman of Tatar origin, the new Tsar.

Simeon reigned as a figurehead leader for a year. According to English envoy Giles Fletcher, the Elder , under Ivan's instructions Simeon confiscated all of the lands that belonged to monasteries, while Ivan pretended to disagree with the decision.

When the throne was returned to Ivan in , he returned some of the confiscated land, keeping the rest.

However, all these craftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia. The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.

Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Company and granted the Company privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.

With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance.

During his troubled relations with the boyars, the tsar even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardized.

Elizabeth agreed on condition that he provided for himself during his stay. Ivan IV corresponded with overseas Orthodox leaders.

In response to a letter of Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria asking the Tsar for financial assistance for the Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula , which had suffered from the Turks, Ivan IV sent in a delegation to Egypt Eyalet by archdeacon Gennady, who, however, died in Constantinople before he could reach Egypt.

From then on the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov. After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders.

These reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan. A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgali , gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne.

In the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war. The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well.

In the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan. It was used as the Russian place d'armes during the decisive campaign of The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August.

Under the supervision of Prince Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky , the Russians used battering rams and a siege tower , undermining and cannons.

The Russians also had the advantage of efficient military engineers. The city's water supply was blocked and the walls were breached.

Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed, and much of the population massacred. Many Russian prisoners and slaves were released.

The Tsar celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously Saint Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow.

The fall of Kazan was only the beginning of a series of so-called "Cheremis wars". The attempts of the Moscow government to gain a foothold on the Middle Volga over and over again provoked uprisings of local peoples, which it was possible to suppress only with great difficulty.

In two campaigns of and , Russian troops conquered the Astrakhan Khanate at the base of the Volga River, and the new Astrakhan fortress was built in by Ivan Vyrodkov instead of the old Tatar capital.

The annexation of the Tatar khanates meant the conquest of vast territories, access to large markets and control of the entire length of the Volga River.

In addition, the subjugation of Muslim khanates actually turned Muscovy into an empire. After his conquest of Kazan, Ivan the Terrible is said to have ordered the crescent, a symbol of Islam, to be placed underneath the Christian cross on the domes of Orthodox Christian churches.

The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople. Early in , Ivan's ambassadors concluded a treaty at Constantinople that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.

In , Ivan launched the Livonian War in an attempt to gain access to the Baltic Sea and its major trade routes.

The war ultimately proved unsuccessful, stretching on for 24 years and engaging the Kingdom of Sweden , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , and the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.

The prolonged war had nearly destroyed the economy, while the Oprichnina had thoroughly disrupted the government. Ivan's realm was being squeezed by two of the great powers of the time.

After rejecting peace proposals from his enemies, Ivan IV found himself in a difficult position by The displaced refugees fleeing the war compounded the effects of the simultaneous drought, and exacerbated war engendered epidemics, causing much loss of life.

Batory then launched a series of offensives against Muscovy in the campaign seasons of —81, trying to cut the Kingdom of Livonia from Muscovite territories.

During his first offensive in , he retook Polotsk with 22, men. During the second, in , he took Velikie Luki with a 29,strong force.

Finally, he began the Siege of Pskov in with a ,strong army. Narva in Estonia was reconquered by Sweden in Muscovy recognized Polish—Lithuanian control of Livonia only in Except for the island of Saaremaa , Denmark was out of the Livonia by In the later years of Ivan's reign, the southern borders of Muscovy were disturbed by Crimean Tatars.

Their main purpose was the capture of slaves. In , the 40,strong Crimean and Turkish army launched a large-scale raid.

Due to the ongoing Livonian War, Moscow's garrison was as small as 6,, and could not even delay the Tatar approach.

Unresisted, Devlet devastated unprotected towns and villages around Moscow and caused the Fire of Moscow.

Historians estimate the number of casualties of the fire from 10, to as many 80, people. To buy peace from Devlet Giray, Ivan was forced to relinquish his claims on Astrakhan in favor of the Crimean Khanate although this proposed transfer was only a diplomatic maneuver and was never actually completed.

This defeat angered Ivan. Between and , preparations were made upon his orders. In addition to Zasechnaya cherta , innovative fortifications were set beyond the River Oka that defined the border.

The following year, Devlet launched another raid on Moscow, now with a numerous horde, [48] reinforced by Turkish janissaries equipped with firearms and cannons.

The Russian army, led by Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky , was half the size; yet it was an experienced army, supported by streltsy equipped with modern firearms and gulyay-gorods.

In addition, this time it was not artificially divided into two parts the "oprichnina" and "zemsky" as it was during the defeat of The Russian troops did not have time to intercept it, but the regiment of Prince Khvorostinin vigorously attacked the Tatars from the rear.

After several days of heavy fighting, on 2 August Mikhail Vorotynsky with the main part of the army flanked the Tatars and dealt a sudden blow, while Khvorostinin made a sortie from the fortifications.

Tatars were completely defeated and fled. During Ivan's reign, Russia started a large-scale exploration and colonization of Siberia.

In , shortly after the conquest of Kazan, the Siberian khan Yadegar and the Nogai Horde under Khan Ismail pledged their allegiance to Ivan, in hope that he would help them against their opponents.

However, Yadegar failed to gather the full sum of tribute he proposed to the tsar, so Ivan did nothing to save his inefficient vassal. In Yadegar was overthrown and killed by Khan Kuchum , who denied any tribute to Moscow.

In Ivan gave the Stroganov merchant family the patent for colonising "the abundant region along the Kama River", and in , lands over the Ural Mountains along the rivers Tura and Tobol.

They also received permission to build forts along the Ob and Irtysh rivers. Around , the Stroganovs engaged the Cossack leader Yermak Timofeyevich to protect their lands from attacks of the Siberian Khan Kuchum.

In Yermak started his conquest of Siberia. With some Cossacks , he started to penetrate territories that were tributary to Kuchum.

Yermak pressured and persuaded the various family-based tribes to change their loyalties and become tributaries of Russia.

Some agreed voluntarily, under better terms than with Kuchum; others were forced. He also established distant forts in the newly conquered lands.

The campaign was successful, and the Cossacks managed to defeat the Siberian army in the Battle of Chuvash Cape , but Yermak was still in need for reinforcements.

He sent an envoy to Ivan the Terrible, with a message that proclaimed Yermak-conquered Siberia a part of Russia, to the dismay of the Stroganovs, who had planned to keep Siberia for themselves.

Ivan agreed to reinforce the Cossacks with his streltsy, but the detachment sent to Siberia died of starvation without any benefit.

Cossacks were defeated by the local peoples, Ermak died and the survivors immediately left Siberia. Only in two years after the death of Ivan did the Russians manage to gain a foothold in Siberia by founding the city of Tyumen.

Ivan the Terrible had four legitimate wives, three of them were poisoned, presumably, by his enemies or the royal families, who wanted to promote their daughters to the tzar's brides.

The marriage of Ivan with Vasilisa Melentyeva was questioned, but then researchers found documents confirming her special relationship with the tsar.

In Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law Yelena Sheremeteva for wearing immodest clothing, and this may have caused a miscarriage.

His second son, also named Ivan , upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, resulting in Ivan's striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, fatally wounding him.

Ivan was a poet, and a composer of considerable talent. His Orthodox liturgical hymn, "Stichiron No.

Peter" and fragments of his letters were put into music by Soviet composer Rodion Shchedrin. The recording, the first Soviet-produced CD, was released in , marking the millennium of Christianity in Russia.

Mirsky called Ivan "a pamphleteer of genius". This contention, however, has not been widely accepted, and most other scholars, such as John Fennell and Ruslan Skrynnikov , continued to argue for their authenticity.

Recent archival discoveries of 16th-century copies of the letters strengthen the argument for their authenticity. Ivan was a devoted [37] follower of Christian Orthodoxy, but in his own specific manner.

He placed the most emphasis on defending the divine right of the ruler to unlimited power under God. He may also have been inspired by the model of Archangel Michael with the idea of divine punishment.

Despite the absolute prohibition of the Church for even the fourth marriage, Ivan had seven wives, and even with his seventh wife alive, he was negotiating to marry Mary Hastings , a distant relative of Queen Elizabeth of England.

Of course, polygamy was also prohibited by the Church, but Ivan planned to "put his wife away". Many monks were killed and tortured to death during the Massacre of Novgorod.

Ivan was somewhat tolerant of Islam , which was widespread on the territories of the conquered Tatar khanates he was afraid of the wrath of the Ottoman sultan.

But his antisemitism was so fierce that no pragmatic considerations could hold him back — for example, after the capture of Polotsk , all unconverted Jews were drowned, despite their role in the city's economy.

Little is known about Ivan's appearance, as virtually all existing portraits were made after his death and contain uncertain amounts of artist's impression.

His eyes are big, observing and restless. His beard is reddish-black, long and thick, but most other hairs on his head are shaved off according to the Russian habits of the time".

According to Ivan Katyryov-Rostovsky , the son-in-law of Michael I of Russia , Ivan had an unpleasant face, with a long and crooked nose.

He was tall and athletically built, with broad shoulders and narrow waist. In , the graves of Ivan and his sons were excavated and examined by Soviet scientists.

Chemical and structural analysis of his remains disproved earlier suggestions that Ivan suffered from syphilis , or that he was poisoned by arsenic or strangled.

His body was rather asymmetrical and had a large amount of osteophytes uncharacteristic of his age; it also contained excessive concentration of mercury.

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Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. During the early part of his reign, Ivan the Terrible faces betrayal from the aristocracy and even his closest friends as he seeks to unite the Russian people.

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Soviet Cinema. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Nikolay Cherkasov Czarina Anastasia Romanovna Serafima Birman Boyarina Efrosinia Staritskaya Mikhail Nazvanov Prince Andrei Kurbsky Mikhail Zharov Fyodor Basmanov Pavel Kadochnikov Vladimir Andreyevich Staritsky Andrei Abrikosov Boyar Fyodor Kolychev Aleksandr Mgebrov Novgorod's Archbishop Pimen Maksim Mikhaylov Archdeacon Vladimir Balashov Piotr Volynetz Vsevolod Pudovkin Nikola, Simpleton Beggar Semyon Timoshenko Kaspar von Oldenbock, Livonian ambassador Aleksandr Rumnev Learn more More Like This.

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Iwan Der Schreckliche Navigationsmenü

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Iwan Der Schreckliche Video

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