Coal Valley Saga Janette Oke: Die Coal Valley Saga – Streams
Die junge Lehrerin Elizabeth Thatcher nimmt eine Stelle in den wilden Rocky Mountains an. Dort stellt sie fest, dass sie völlig unvorbereitet auf das Leben in der Wildnis ist. Aber schon bald findet sie in der fremden Welt Unterstützung. Janette Oke: Die Coal Valley Saga (Originaltitel: When Calls the Heart) ist eine US-amerikanische Western-Fernsehserie, die auf der im Original gleichnamigen. Janette Oke: Die Coal Valley Saga: Die junge Lehrerin Elizabeth Thatcher ist das Leben in der gehobenen Gesellschaft gewöhnt. Doch ihre erste Anstellung als. Die romantisch humorvolle Serie mit u.a. Jack Wagner, Lori Loughlin und Erin Krakow als Elizabeth Thatcher und Daniel Lissing als Jack Thornton. Doch die Coal Valley Saga hat nicht nur im englischsprachigen Raum unzählige Fans, sondern auch hierzulande. Bisher sind vier Staffeln der beliebten Serie.
DIE COAL VALLEY SAGA sk61bulldog.se ZEITEN Basierend auf der Kanada-Serie von JANETT OKE Originaltitel: When calls the heart Lost and found. INHALT. Die junge Lehrerin Elizabeth Thatcher nimmt eine Stelle in den wilden Rocky Mountains an. Dort stellt sie fest, dass sie völlig unvorbereitet auf das Leben in der Wildnis ist. Aber schon bald findet sie in der fremden Welt Unterstützung. Die romantisch humorvolle Serie mit u.a. Jack Wagner, Lori Loughlin und Erin Krakow als Elizabeth Thatcher und Daniel Lissing als Jack Thornton.
This labor conflict ignited during when coal mine owners in the Coal Creek watershed began to remove and replace their company-employed, private coal miners then on the payroll with convict laborers leased out by the Tennessee state prison system.
These former wage-earning Coal Creek coal miners repeatedly attacked and burned both state prison stockades and mine properties, all while releasing hundreds of the state convict laborers from their bondage to the mine companies.
Many of these same Coal Creek coal miners were also wounded or killed in small-arms skirmishes during the Coal Creek War, along with dozens of Tennessee state militiamen.
One historian describes the Coal Creek War as "one of the most dramatic and significant episodes in all American labor history.
The Coal Creek War was itself part of a greater labor struggle across Tennessee that was launched against the state government's controversial convict-leasing system, which allowed the state prison system to lease convict labor to mining companies and other business enterprises with the effect of suppressing employee wages in the open market across the state.
The outbreak of this labor conflict touched off a partisan media firestorm between the miners' supporters and detractors and brought the issue of convict leasing to the public debate.
Although the Coal Creek War essentially ended with the arrests of hundreds of former company coal miners during The adverse exposure that this state conflict with private labor generated nationwide led to the downfall of Governor John P.
Buchanan , and forced the Tennessee General Assembly to reconsider its state convict labor-leasing system. Coal Creek, a tributary of the Clinch River , flows north for several miles from its source in the mountains, slicing a narrow valley between the backbone-like Walden Ridge on the east and Vowell Mountain to the west before exiting the mountains eastward through a water gap in Walden Ridge.
A flank of Vowell Mountain known as "Militia Hill" overlooks this water gap. Most of the violence centered around two communities— Briceville , at the upper end of Coal Creek near its source, and the town of Coal Creek, the modern Rocky Top , at the lower end of the creek where it emerges from its Walden Ridge water gap.
After the American Civil War , Tennessee, like other Southern states, struggled to find sources of revenue. Post-war railroad construction, meanwhile, had opened up the state's coalfields to major mining operations, creating a large demand for cheap labor.
In , the state began leasing its convicts to companies willing to pay for the inmates' housing in exchange for their labor, and in leased convicts to the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railway Company TCI , which owned a large coal and coke operation in the Cumberland Plateau area west of Chattanooga.
TCI, in turn, subleased most of the convicts to smaller mining companies. During the same period, the Coal Creek Valley became one of Tennessee's most lucrative coal mining regions.
The town of Coal Creek expanded rapidly, becoming the largest in Anderson County with a population of 3, by the end of the s.
Coal mines opened throughout the valley between Coal Creek and Briceville, which was founded as a mining town in the late s.
Sanford and other land speculators after the Civil War. While the mining companies reaped substantial profits, the miners often struggled economically and began to organize in the s.
The mine owners preferred free labor, but they threatened to replace free miners with convicts whenever free miners talked about forming unions.
In , the election of several members of the labor-friendly Tennessee Farmers' Alliance— among them Governor John P.
Buchanan— to the state government emboldened miners in the Coal Creek Valley to make several demands. One of the key demands was payment in cash rather than company scrip , which could either be used only at company-owned stores with marked-up prices or be redeemed for cash at a percentage of its value.
Miners also demanded they be allowed to use their own checkweighmen— the specialists who weighed the coal and determined how much a particular miner had earned— instead of checkweighmen hired by the company.
Since state laws already barred scrip payment and company-hired checkweighmen, most mine owners accepted the demands, though they were in the midst of an economic downturn.
Two months later, the company demanded its miners sign an iron-clad contract before returning to work. The miners refused.
With tensions already high, the company tore down miners' houses in Briceville to build a stockade for its convict laborers.
Miners and local merchants met on July 14 to determine a course of action. It was rumored a larger group of convicts would arrive the next day.
That night about armed miners— probably led by Knights of Labor organizers Eugene Merrell , George Irish, and Marcena Ingraham — surrounded the Briceville stockade.
The stockade's guards surrendered without a fight, and the convicts were marched to Coal Creek, where they were loaded onto a train and sent to Knoxville.
After seizing the Briceville stockade, the Coal Creek miners sent a telegram to Governor Buchanan, stating their actions were taken to defend their property and wages and asking for his intervention.
On July 16, Buchanan, escorted by three Tennessee state militia companies, two from Chattanooga and one from Knoxville, led the convicts back to Briceville.
After the governor's speech, Merrell rebutted it, claiming that the governor had not bothered to enforce laws regarding scrip or checkweighmen and calling the state government a " disgrace to a civilized country.
The governor left militiamen under Colonel Granville Sevier , a great-grandson of John Sevier , to guard the stockade.
On the morning of July 20, an estimated 2, miners armed with shotguns, rifles, and pistols again surrounded the Briceville stockade.
The miners' ranks had been bolstered by an influx of miners from the border town of Jellico and several hundred miners from Kentucky, some of whom had successfully removed convicts from two Kentucky mines five years earlier.
After gaining an assurance that no company property would be damaged, Sevier, seeing the futility of resisting such a large force, surrendered.
The miners again marched the convicts to Coal Creek and put them on a train back to Knoxville. Later that day, the miners marched on the Knoxville Iron Company mine near Coal Creek, which also used convict labor, forced the guards at its stockade to surrender, and likewise sent its convicts to Knoxville.
On July 21, , Governor Buchanan travelled to Knoxville, where he again summoned the militia. Over a four-day period, the governor met with a committee of local figures friendly to the miners' interests, namely attorney J.
On July 23, Williams and Webb went to Coal Creek to address the miners, echoing the governor's plea for patience.
Williams assured the miners that the governor supported an end to convict-leasing, but said it would take time to change the law.
The miners thus agreed to a day truce after the governor assured them he would call a special session of the Tennessee state legislature and recommend the lease law be repealed.
The convict laborers returned on July During the truce, Merrell and Irish traveled around the state, giving speeches to rally support for the miners' cause.
On August 31, Buchanan called a special session of the state legislature to consider the convict lease issue. One question before the legislature was whether or not the state could terminate the leasing contract it had signed, which did not expire until December 31, Another issue was what to do with convicts should the convict-leasing system be terminated.
After three weeks of debate, the legislature adjourned on September 21, taking little action other than making it a felony to interfere with the leasing system and authorizing the governor to take any necessary action to protect the system.
The case moved quickly through the courts, reaching the Tennessee State Supreme Court in October Chief Justice Peter Turney , however, ruled against the miners, essentially citing the sanctity of contracts.
On October 28, , the committee representing the Coal Creek miners' interests announced they were resigning, denounced the legislature, and issued a subtle call to arms.
Several company buildings were destroyed or looted, but the stockade was spared. Over convicts were freed and supplied with fresh food and civilian clothes by the insurgents, who urged them not to commit further crimes.
On November 2, another band burned the stockade at Oliver Springs, freeing convicts. In response to the outbreak, a second truce was negotiated in which the miners agreed to allow the return of convicts to Coal Creek and Oliver Springs, but not Briceville, where TCMC president B.
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